The other early translations into French and German that the Library holds were, by contrast, all acquired relatively recently. Cumulatively, these translations enable us to study how Jane Austen was interpreted in early French culture and how they convey the spirit of the original text. This early French Jane Austen is a somewhat formulaic novelist of sensibility devoid of her trademark sense of irony and social satire.
Mandel London, Technorati Tags : Jane Austen , Translation. On 21 September, he defeated the government army in Scotland at the Battle of Prestonpans. He then marched south. Culloden, the last battle fought on British soil, marked the defeat of the Jacobite revolt of , also known as the '45 Rebellion. They reached as far south as Derby before being chased back to Scotland, where they were routed by an army under William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and second son of George II.
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In the midth century, Liverpool slave ships made around 49 voyages a year against Bristol's average of Bristol had itself overtaken London as the main slave trading port in Slave ship owners and the owners of Caribbean plantations, most of whom lived in Britain, became very wealthy and influential in government and society. From the s, landlords in the Scottish Highlands began to forcibly remove tenants from their land, usually to replace them with more profitable sheep farming.
The clearances resulted in whole Highland communities leaving Scotland and emigrating, most of them to North America. Many others moved to growing urban industrial centres such as Glasgow. This was part of a broader process of agricultural change in Britain, but in the Highlands it was marked by particular abruptness and brutality. The war between Britain and France that began in May is arguably the first global war in modern history.
Britain and her allies fought France in America, India and Europe. France forged alliances with Austria and Russia against Prussia. In , Spain entered the war on the side of France. Britain emerged from the war victorious in , and under the Treaty of Paris acquired Quebec, Florida, Minorca, large parts of India and the West Indies. The defeat of Daulah, who was backed by the French, led to the entire province of Bengal passing into Company control.
This victory, and the enormous wealth of Bengal, are often seen as important factors in establishing eventual British control over all of India. Tacky's Revolt was the largest of many slave uprisings in the British West Indies in the 18th century, caused by the dreadful conditions enslaved people had to endure on the sugar plantations.
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Hundreds of slaves attacked plantations, killing about 60 whites and setting crops and sugar works alight. Tacky was captured and beheaded, and other rebels died or were executed, but skirmishes continued for many months. He was nicknamed 'Farmer George' because of his passion for agriculture. During his reign, Britain lost its American colonies but emerged as a leading European power. From , George suffered recurrent mental illness and in his son was appointed regent.
He was released and for the next 15 years campaigned for parliamentary reform. He was frequently in trouble with the authorities, and was expelled from the Commons a number of times, only to be re-elected.
After his arrest in , seven were killed in the 'Massacre of St George's Fields' when a crowd demanding his release was fired on by troops. The money was intended to pay for the colonists' own military defence against possible future French incursions.
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Stamp duties were levied on newspapers and legal documents. Six of the 13 American colonies petitioned against the act and riots broke out. The Stamp Act was repealed in March In , Charles Townshend, the chancellor of the exchequer, drew up legislation to raise taxes from North American colonists on selected imports, including glass, paint, lead and tea. As with the repealed Stamp Act of , the intention was to make colonists contribute towards their own defence against French incursions. Colonial protests led to the Revenue Act being repealed in , except for the duty on imported tea.
His team of botanists and scientists brought back to England many important specimens and much scientific information. Cook made two further Pacific voyages. He was killed on the second of these in by warriors in Hawaii. Frederick, Lord North an honorary title , became prime minister at the end of a decade that had seen six administrations come and go.
George III hoped that his friend North could provide political stability. Lord North remained prime minister until The weaving of cotton cloth had become a major industry by the s, with most of the labour being done by people in their homes.
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In , inventor Richard Arkwright opened the first cotton mill at Cromford, Derbyshire. The spinning of yarn was carried out by his own patented machine, known as a water frame.
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This was a significant step towards the automation of labour-intensive industries and heralded the beginning of the 'Factory Age' in Britain. When the enslaved James Somerset escaped from his owner in London, he was captured and forced on to a ship bound for Jamaica. With the help of abolitionist Granville Sharpe, Somerset's case was taken to court and Lord William Mansfield, the lord chief justice, ruled that Somerset should be freed.
This was widely, and mistakenly, believed to mean that slavery was outlawed in England. Slave owners continued to capture their runaway slaves and take them back to the Caribbean, but the case marked a milestone in the struggle to abolish slavery. In , taxes on imports to the American Colonies had been repealed on all goods except tea.
In , colonists disguised as Native Americans dumped chests of tea from East India Company vessels into Boston harbour in protest against this remaining levy. Political tensions between the American colonists and the British government escalated as a result. John Wesley, founder of the Methodist church, was a lifelong opponent of slavery. In he published a pamphlet entitled 'Thoughts Upon Slavery', which examined how Africans were captured and transported, and proposed legal and moral arguments against slavery and the slave trade.
In , at considerable personal risk, he preached a sermon against slavery in Bristol, one of the leading slave trading ports. Nonconformists, particularly Quakers, were very active in the abolition movement, and included other well known individuals such as Joseph Priestley and Josiah Wedgwood.
On 18 April , a skirmish between British redcoats and the local militia at Lexington, Massachusetts, led to the fighting that began the American War of Independence. No one knows which side fired the first 'shot heard around the world'. About 15 months after the outbreak of war, colonial leader Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence, which argued that the goals of the United States of America were 'life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness'.
In September , the Treaty of Paris formally ended the war.
An investigation into the state of English and Welsh prisons in the mids by penal reformer John Howard revealed the dreadful conditions, inadequate diet and corrupt administration of many jails. The Penitentiary Act was introduced with the intention of remedying the situation. This was the first British law to authorise state prisons.
In , parliament passed the Catholic Relief Act, which removed many of the traditional restrictions on Catholics in Britain. George Gordon, leader of the Protestant Association, was leading a huge crowd to parliament with a petition calling for repeal of the act when anti-Catholic violence erupted.
The ensuing orgy of property destruction and disorder lasted a week. Hundreds died in fighting between protestors and troops. These were amongst the worst riots in English history. British forces were besieged on the Yorktown peninsula, Virginia, by the American continental army in the west and the French fleet closing on Chesapeake Bay. The victory demonstrated beyond doubt that Britain could not hope to win a war so far from its own shores. The British government was forced into negotiations to end the conflict.
During a voyage from Africa to Jamaica, the captain of the slave ship 'Zong' ordered slaves to be thrown overboard alive. The ship's owners then filed a fraudulent insurance claim for the value of the dead slaves. In March the case was heard in London as an insurance dispute rather than a murder trial. The case was widely publicised by outraged abolitionists, particularly Olaudah Equiano and Granville Sharp, and helped to attract new supporters to the abolition cause.
When it became evident that the American colonists were winning their war of independence, those who had fought for the British faced an uncertain future. These included former slaves who had fought on the understanding that they would gain their freedom at the end of the conflict. Around 75, loyalists decided to leave, most of them going to the British North American colonies in what is now Canada, others to the West Indies and some to Britain.
In , more than 1, freed slaves and their families who had gone to Nova Scotia left Canada to settle in Sierra Leone, West Africa. After three brief ministries had failed, the William Pitt the Younger became Britain's prime minister at the age of His father, William Pitt the Elder had held the office twice, in the s. His critics said that the nation had been 'entrusted to a schoolboy's care'.