The infamous 45th issue published on 23 April led to a charge of seditious libel, and Wilkes fled to Paris, where he would remain in almost uninterrupted exile until Charles Churchill, on John Ogilvie, on the Rev. Suard thus presented the fictional 3 rd -century Gaelic bard to a French audience for the first time.
Otherwise the terms of Suard's praise hardly differ from those by which Ossian's German and other European fans justified their enthusiasm. He apologized for Ossian's rough edges, noting that:. In the s and s tomb-filled gardens and bois were laid out in the Parc Monceau, at Ermenonville, and elsewhere.
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All these required contacts and funds, to cover official fees as well as douceurs — all this before a publisher was hired and a single page was printed. Of the twenty-four established in , fifteen failed to see their first birthday. Four of the twelve that were established the same year as the Gazette met a similar fate. Arnaud pulled strings and got the Dauphin to intervene on his behalf. Fittingly, the Journal was dedicated to him. As we shall see, this did not prevent the Gazette from reviewing English publications on history and politics entirely.
Suard might have refused to review The North Briton, but he did not impose a total ban. In February a review of a safely centrist political pamphlet observed that:. Both the Essay and the Address sat on the fence, which was quite an achievement considering how hot the pamphlet war was raging in London in That is probably why Suard chose them. Suard does comment on the dangers he associates with the mounting size of the English national debt. What struck Voltaire about English history was not its slow, Whiggish evolution, but its saltationism.
Peace, order and reason seemed to generate themselves spontaneously from a primordial chaos of bloodshed, violence and fanaticism. Whereas both agreed that British liberty was inseparable from oppositional politics, Suard argued that it was possible for both sides to appeal to public opinion rather than ceaselessly sniping at each other. Perhaps surprisingly, Wilkes approved:. I am glad that you have lash'd Algarotti , his extravagant praises of my countrymen are unjust, ridiculous, and tend to blunt the edge of our industry.
In the Netherlands the publication of French language newspapers and books was a major industry, one founded on the weakness of the States General relative to individual city councils who often chose to ignore edicts curbing press freedom as well as presence of Huguenots who had fled France around the time of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. These included the Luzac family of Leiden, who began publishing Nouvelles extraordinaires de Divers Endroits more usually known as the Gazette de Leyde in As the Prospectus observed:. London itself had played host to French language periodicals as early as the Mercure Anglais , but there were only two such titles published in London in the s, and only three or four in the s, all of which folded in even less time than the Gazette did.
As we have seen, Louis XV opposed the teaching of English. It must be owned that our language is at present in a state of anarchy; and hitherto, perhaps, it may not have been the worse for it. During our free and open trade, many words and expressions have been imported, adopted and naturalized from other languages, which have greatly enriched our own. Let it still preserve what real strength and beauty it may have borrowed from others, but let it not, like the Tarpeian maid, be overwhelmed and crushed by unnecessary foreign ornaments.
The time for discrimination seems to be now come. Toleration, adoption and naturalization have run their length. Good order and authority are now necessary. Many of them were asylum seekers. Johnson's linguistic police action in producing the dictionary was just the thing to knock them into shape and keep out further immigrants. Addressing his audience in The World, Walpole resigned all rights in his language to Johnson.
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But this was no exercise in Little Englandism; English was on the march. By the s Philippe van Tieghem estimates that there were sixteen periodicals in France primarily interested in English ideas and literature. Wilkes felt the need to apologize to Suard for such language, but also to the English people for his own love of France:. For I was never so happy, neither before nor since, as during the time of my exile and outlawry — a damned confession this for old England — but I will make her amends in the next political trash I give to the public by abusing France as much — […] pray remember that in this country our mustard is ten times stronger than yours […] The taste of a nation must be consulted.
Be so good to apply this to works of the manufacture of the press. Delicacy is not the thing. In terms of the role of French in polite or genteel society, the ability to converse in French seems to have remained a necessary social skill for the elite and upper middle class of Britain until the s. Thereafter knowledge of a foreign language became less important, while for savants German arguably replaced French as the one language British intellectuals had to have.
Plus qu’un Salon, un festival littéraire - Zéna ZALZAL - L'Orient-Le Jour
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Mémoires de Sully, principal ministre de Henri-le-grand. T. 5 (Éd.1788) (Histoire)
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